강유원의 북리스트 | 정치철학(7) #Miller 17쪽

 

 

2022.08.24 정치철학(7) #Miller

regime이라는 단어와 government이라는 단어는 구별된다. regime이라는 단어는 체제, political regime이라고 하면 정치적 체제, 정치 체제라고 쓰이기도 하는데, 그냥 체제라는 한국어가 나오면 예외없이 일대일 대응으로 regime이라는 단어로 이해하는 것이 좋다. 그렇게 해놓은 상태에서 로렌체티의 그림처럼 14세기에는 government라는 단어도 regime이라는 의미로 쓰였을 수도 있는데, 일단은 그렇다해도 체제라는 말은 그렇게 이해하면 된다. 그것은 정치적 귄위와 제도가 합해지면 국가 state가 되는 것이고, 국가 안에는 government라든가 정치적 권력을 가진 여러 집단들이 있게 된다. 

 


017 벽화를 그릴 때 로렌체티는 좋은 정부와 나쁜 정부를 주로 두 부류의 통치자가 지닌 인간적 자질이라는 면과 그 자질이 그들의 신민의 삶이 미치는 영향이라는 면에서 제시했다.
005 When Lorenzetti painted his murals, he presented good and bad government primarily in terms of the human qualities of the two kinds of rulers, and the effects those qualities had on the lives of their subjects.  

 


017 메시지가 전해진[전달하는] 매체를 고려할 때[전제할 때] 이러한 방식은 아마도 불가피했겠지만, 어쨌든 그것은 대체로 그 시대의 생각을 따르는 것이었다[그 시대의 생각과 맥락을 같이한다]. 
005 Given the medium in which the message was conveyed, this was perhaps unavoidable, but in any case, it was very much in line with the thinking of his age. 

 

여기서 medium는 벽화라고 하는 매체, 하나 더 생각해 볼 수 있는 것이 시청사의 아홉의 방
매체가 말하자면 메시지가 전달하는 내용을 규정하는데 중요한 영향을 미쳤다는 것을 의미한다.

 


017 좋은 정부라는 것은 스스로의 체제[그 정부 자체의 제도]만큼이나 지배하는 자들의 자질 ━ 그들의 사려, 용기 관용 등등 ━과 관련된 것이었다.
005 Good government was as much about the character of those who governed ━ their prudence, courage, generosity, and so on ━ as about the system of government itself.  


the system of government itself. 스스로의 체제[제도]
체제는 government보다 상위의 개념이다. 이 책의 번역자가 선택한 단어장을 지금 고쳐보려는 중이다. system은 이럴 때 제도, 정부 제도이다.

 


017 물론 체제에 관한 논쟁, 예를 들어 군주정은 공화정보다 바람직한 것인가 아니면 그 반대인가에 관한 논쟁도 있었다.
Of course there were also debates about the system: about whether monarchy was preferable to republican government or vice versa, for instance. 

여기서 system은 정치체제를 가리킨다. 그러면 저자 밀러는 system이라는 단어를 regime이라는 단어와는 다른 의미로 쓴 것 같다.

 


018 오늘날에는 강조점이 바뀌었다.
005 Today the emphasis has changed:  

 


018 [오늘날의] 우리는 좋은 정부의 제도들에 관해서는 많이 생각하지만, 그 제도들을 운용하는 사람들의 개인적 자질에 관해서는 별로 생각하지 않는다.
005 we think much more about the institutions of good government, and less about the personal qualities of the people who make them work.  
 
institutions: 제도. political institutions과 authority이 결합이 되면 국가가 된다.

 


018 아마도 우리는 분명이 방향으로 너무 멀리 나아갔을 것이다.
005 Arguably we have gone too far in this direction, 

 


018 하지만 나는 이런 현대의 논의방식을 따라 다음 장들에서 우리의 통치자들을 덕이 있게 만드는 방법에 관해서가 아니라 주로 체제[제도, 체계]로서의 좋은 정부에 관해 이야기하려고 한다.
005 but I will follow modern fashion and talk in later chapters primarily about good government as a system, not about how to make our rulers virtuous.  

good government as a system: 제도/체계로서의 좋은 정부. 여기서 저자는 system이라는 단어를 가지고 공화정, 민주정이라는 의미로도 쓰고, 제도를 가리키는 말로도 쓴다. 저자가 system이라는 단어를 일관성 있게 쓰고 있지 않다.

 


018 이제 이 큰 그림 뒤에 자리잡고 있는 관념들로 돌아가자.
005 Back now to the ideas behind the big picture.

 


018 세 가지 가운데 가장 옹호하기 쉬운 것은 정부[체제의 의미]가 우리의 삶의 질에 심대한 영향을 미친다는 관념이다.
The easiest of the three to defend is the idea that government profoundly affects the quality of our lives.

앞서서 얘기가 되었던 부분. 정부는 우리의 삶의 질에 심대한 영향을 미친다.

 


018 어떤 독자가 이것을 곧 바로 인정하지 않는다면, 그것은 아마도 그 사람이 해마다 별 다른 변화 없이 상대적으로 안정된 형태의 정부 아래에서 생활하고 있기 때문일 것이다.
005 If any reader fails to recognize this straight away, it is perhaps because he or she is living under a relatively stable form of government where not much changes from year to year.  


018 선거를 통해 한 정당이 다른 정당으로 교체된다고 해도, 그 전환은 대다수 사람들의 삶에 대수롭지 않은 영향만 미칠 뿐이다.

 


018 그러나 그런 체제[정권, 정부형태]가 아닌, 지난 세기에 부상했다가 몰락한 몇몇 정권[체제]을 떠올려보라. 
006 But think instead about some of the regimes that rose and fell in the last century: 

regime은 체제로 번역되어 있다. 앞서서 system도 체제라고 번역이 되었다. 그러면 이것은 엉키는 것이다. 

 


018 예를 들어 독일의 나치 정권[체제]과 그 정권[체제]에 의해 살해된 600만 명의 유대인이나, 마오쩌 둥의 중국과 이른바 '대약진운동' 때문에 야기된 기근으로 죽은 2000만명 이상의 사람들에 대해 생각해보라. 
006 think about the Nazi regime in Germany and the 6 million Jews who were killed by it, or think about Mao's China and the 20 million or more who died as a result of the famine induced by the so-called 'Great Leap Forward'. 

regime은 정권으로 번역되어 있다.

 


019 20세기 역사는 로렌체티의 벽화에서 드러나는 뚜렷한 대조를 거의 정확하게 재현한 것처럼 여겨진다.
006 Twentieth century history seems to have reproduced the stark contrast of Lorenzetti's mural almost exactly.

우리가 사는 한국을 생각해보면 정권이 바뀌었는데 체제가 바뀐 것처럼 나라꼴이 바뀌는 경우가 많은데, 그런 것을 얘기한 부분이다.
"큰 그림 뒤에 자리잡고 있는 관념들" 중 가장 옹호하기 쉬운 것으로 거론된 정부가 우리의 삶의 어떤 영향을 미치는가 하는 부분. 로렌체티의 그림에서 정부라는 단어는 체제라는 단어로 쓰였기 때문에 번역어는 정부 government이지만 내용상으로는 체제 regime라고 이해하는 것이 합당하다.


 

 

 

 

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